Philipp Lurz, MD, Vivek Muthurangu, MD, Silvia Schievano, PhD, Johannes Nordmeyer, MD, Philipp Bonhoeffer, MD, Andrew M. Taylor, MD, Michael S. Hansen, PhD

Purpose: To assess the feasibility and reproducibility of
real-time radial k-t sensitivity encoding (SENSE) magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI) for biventricular volumetric as-
sessment during exercise.

Materials and Methods: In all, 12 healthy young adults
underwent MRI at rest and during supine exercise at three
different workload intensities. Biventricular volumes and
function were assessed with 1) a radial k-t SENSE real-time
sequence and 2) a scanner vendor supplied (standard) real-
time sequence. Global image quality, motion fidelity, and
agreement in right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV)
stroke volume (SV) as a surrogate measure for accuracy
were assessed. Exercise MR was repeated within 1 month
for assessment of reproducibility.

Results: Imaging scores were superior for radial real-time k-t
SENSE images (P ⬍ 0.001). Agreement in RV and LV SV
during exercise was better with radial k-t real-time (SD of
difference ⫾3.43 vs. ⫾8.97 mL; P ⬍ 0.001). Agreement in
cardiac output (CO) in the same subject at two different im-
aging sessions was better for radial k-t SENSE. This was
significant for the CO calculated for the RV (SD of difference
⫾0.6 vs. ⫾0.95 L/min; P ⫽ 0.01) and LV (⫾0.45 vs. ⫾0.92
L/min; P ⬍ 0.001).

Conclusion: Radial k-t SENSE real-time imaging repre-
sents a feasible and reproducible imaging technique for
biventricular assessment during exercise.

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